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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 2-8

Dietetic principles and properties of Dadhi (Curd): An Ayurvedic Review


Department of Swasthavritta and Yoga, National Institute of Ayurveda, Deemed to be University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission01-Sep-2021
Date of Decision20-Sep-2021
Date of Acceptance06-Oct-2021
Date of Web Publication26-Nov-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Agrawal Sarvesh Kumar
Department of Swasthavritta and Yoga, National Institute of Ayurveda, Deemed to be University, Jaipur, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/AYUHOM.AYUHOM_44_21

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  Abstract 


People are adopting western civilization very fast and leaving the traditional food pattern at present in India. In this context, the consumption of Dadhi without Ayurvedic principle has also increased. In modern dietetics, Dadhi is promoted for regular use due to its probiotic and nutritive values. Therefore, it is the right time to explore the principles of Ayurveda given for the consumption of Dadhi and the adverse effect of Dadhi consumption without Ayurvedic tenets and their possible explanation. A lot of work has been done on probiotic properties of Dadhi in various modern researches, but the area on the research of Ayurvedic properties is still unexplored. Therefore, this study is an attempt to fulfil this gap of knowledge. The objective of this study is to compile and explore the Ayurvedic properties of Dadhi (Curd) and their possible correlation to health and diseases. This is a narrative (literature) review type of the study. The literature has been collected from various Ayurvedic texts, modern literature, and research articles. Online literature was searched from various databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Ayush Research Portal, DHARA, Google Scholar, and Government websites. This literature was arranged systematically to develop insight view on the different aspect of curd consumption, i.e. properties, indications, contraindications, health effects, and rules of consumption. Finally, it can be concluded that Dadhi taken with Ayurvedic tenets is healthy otherwise it may lead to Jwara, Raktapitta, Visarpa, Kushtha, Pandu, Bhrama, etc.

Keywords: Buttermilk, curd, Dadhi, Dahi, takra, yoghurt


How to cite this article:
Kumar AS, Durgawati D. Dietetic principles and properties of Dadhi (Curd): An Ayurvedic Review. AYUHOM 2021;8:2-8

How to cite this URL:
Kumar AS, Durgawati D. Dietetic principles and properties of Dadhi (Curd): An Ayurvedic Review. AYUHOM [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 May 23];8:2-8. Available from: http://www.ayuhom.com/text.asp?2021/8/1/2/331324




  Introduction Top


Ayurveda is a science of healthy living of the human being. Health is nothing but an equilibrium state of Dosha (humor), Dhatu (tissue), Mala (excreta), Agni (bio-fire), and mental faculty of an individual.[1] There are three sub-pillars (Trayopastambha) to maintain this equilibrium namely, Ahara (food), Nidra (sleep), and Brahmacharya (celibacy).[2] The concept of Ahara is elaborated well in Ayurvedic literature since thousands of years back. The food pattern in India has a great diversity across different places, religions, communities, traditions, seasons, etc., There are different timings, combinations, quantity, etc., for the same food item. Therefore, a lot of controversies have been created among people regarding dietetic principles.

The food pattern and life style of people is rapidly changing in the present era of science and development. In this dietary shift, one of the major changes that have been seen is pattern of Dadhi consumption. Regular use of Dadhi is contraindicated in all Ayurvedic texts. Special focus has been given to nonconsumption of Dadhi at night. Even the use of Dadhi is indicated with Mudga Yusha (green gram soup), Amalaki (Indian goose berrry), Madhu (honey), Lavana (salt), and Sharkara (sugar). Heating of Dadhi is also contraindicated.[3] In Ritucharya (seasonal regimen), Dadhi is indicated only in Shishira (late winter), Varsha (rainy season), and Hemanta (early winter) while contraindicated in Greeshma (summer), Sharad (autumn), and Vasanta (spring) Ritu. The use of Dadhi is also contraindicated in Kaphaja, Pittaja, and Raktaja Vikara, as it is Ushnavirya (hot potency), Amlapaki and Kaphapittavardhaka.[4] The use of Dadhi against Ayurvedic tenets leads to Jwara (Fever), Raktapitta (Bleeding disorders), Visarpa (erysipelas like skin disorder), Kushtha (Skin disorder), Pandu (Anemia), and Bhrama (Dizziness).[5]At present time, the practice of Dadhi consumption at night is very common in people. The use of Dadhi is common in Vasanta (spring), Greeshma (summer), and Sharad (autumn) Ritu (season), which is against the Ayurvedic principles.


  Need of Study Top


People in India are rapidly adopting western civilization these days. The people are leaving the traditional food pattern and adopting the western food pattern. In the same way, the consumption of Dadhi without Ayurvedic principles has also increased. In modern dietetics, Dadhi is promoted for regular use due to its probiotic and nutritive values.[6] The major difference in the concepts of modern and Ayurvedic dietetics is that the principles of Ayurvedic dietetics are based on the qualitative properties of food and principles of modern dietetics are based on quantitative properties of food. As a result, it is the ideal time to investigate the Ayurvedic principles relating to the ingestion of Dadhi and the adverse effect of Dadhi consumption without Ayurvedic tenets and their possible explanation. A lot of work has been done on probiotic properties of Dadhi in various modern researches, but the area on the research of Ayurvedic properties is still unexplored. Therefore, this study is an attempt to fulfil this gap of knowledge.

Objective: The objective of this study is to compile and explore the Ayurvedic properties of Dadhi (Curd) and their possible correlation to health and diseases.


  Materials and Methods Top


The material for this review study is the literature related to properties of Dadhi (curd), its health effects, indications, contraindications, and rules of consuming curd. The literature has been collected from various Ayurvedic texts, modern literature, and research articles. Online literature was searched from various databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Ayush Research Portal, DHARA, Google Scholar, and Government websites, etc., using keywords Dahi, Dadhi, curd, yoghurt, yogurt, takra, and buttermilk.

This is a narrative (literature) review type of the study. All the literature extracted from various sources were arrange systematically to develop insight view on different aspect of curd consumption, i.e. properties, indications, contraindications, health effects, and rules of consumption. The concepts of Ayurveda regarding curd are explained on scientific basis, which has been written in the discussion part of this study.


  Review of Literature Top


Dadhi has been described in Apte dictionary as “ Dadhi n. Coagulated milk, thick sour milk; ”.[6] Therefore, Dadhi is fermented milk prepared on household basis. However, it is also prepared on commercial basis, in dairy industry. Dadhi is known with different name in the various parts of country such as Dahi in Hindi speaking states, Gujarat, Maharashtra, etc., Doi in West Bengal, Perugu in Andhra Pradesh, Thayir in Tamilnadu, Mosaru in Karnataka, and Tair in Kerala. Similar products of fermented milk are used in the various parts of the country like yoghurt of Europe and America, the busa of Turkestan, the kefir and the kourniss of Russia and the lebuvi of Egypt are examples of curdle milk.

In Vedic Samhitas, Upanishad, Purana, Smriti and other ancient Literature, Dadhi is used with other Ahara Dravya like Dugdha, Madhu, Ghrita, Soma, etc., to dedicate to Indra and other Devatas as Agnihotra (Yajya).[7]

In Brihattrayi, Dadhi is considered under Dugdhavarga in Dvadasha Aharavarga of Charaka, Dadhivarga and Takravargain ten Dravadrvaya of Shushruta and Dugdhavarga in five Dravadravya of Vagbhata.


  Guna-Karma of Dadhi Top


Guna and Karma of Dadhi are given below[8],[9],[10]

Rasa

Dadhi has three different Rasa based on its types, namely Madhura (sweet), Amla (sour), and Atyamla (too sour). Anurasa of Dadhi is Kashaya (astringent). Guna: Guru (heavy), Snigdha (unctuous) and Grahi (antidiarrheal) Virya: Ushna (hot) Vipaka: Amla (Sour).

Doshakarma

Vatashamaka, however, Dadhi has different Doshakarma according to its types like: Kaphavardhaka (Madhura), Kaphapittavardhaka (Amla), and Raktadoshakara (Atyamla).

Dhatukarma

Rochana (tasteful), Deepana (appetizer), Snehana (unctuousness), Balavardhana (enhance strength), Brimhana (create nourishment), Medavardhaka (nourish fat), Raktavardhaka (nourish blood), Vrishya (aphrodisiac), Shukarvardhaka (nourish semen), Pranakara (vitalize), and Mangalakaree (auspicious).

Dadhi as Pathya (indications)

Peenasa (cold), Nava Pratishyaya (acute cold), Sheetajanya Vishamajwara (kind of fever), Aruchi (tastelessness), Arsha (hemorrhoids), Atisara (diarrhea), Mutrakricchra (painful micturition), Nashtartava (amenorrhea), 4th month of pregnancy, Nidranasha (insomnia), Karshya (emaciation), and Vataja Hridroga (kind of heart disease).[8],[9],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17]

Dadhi as Apathya/Nidan (contraindications)

Raktapitta (bleeding disorder), Kaphaja Vyadhi, Kushtha (skin disorders), Shotha (inflammation), Shopha (swelling), Prameha (diabetes), Krimi (infestation), and Mukha Roga (oral diseases).[4],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22]


  Rule for Consumption of Dadhi Top


There are following rules for consumtion of Dadhi[23]

  1. Dadhi should not be consumed at night or regularly in diet or after heating orin Vasanta, Greeshma and Sharad Ritu
  2. Dadhi should not be consumed without Ghrita, Sharkara, Mudga Yusha, Madhu, Amalaka or Lavana.


The people who consume Dadhi without above rules suffer from Jwara (fever), Raktapitta (bleeding disorders), Visarpa (erysipelas), Kushtha (skin disorders), Pandu (anemia), and Bhrama (dizziness).


  Types of Dadhi According to Rasa Top


There are following types of Dadhi according to Rasa[24]

Manda

Avyakta Rasa (tasteless), Kinchit Ghana (slightly concentrated), Srishtavidmuta (evacuate faeces and urine), Tridoshakara (aggravates all humors), and Vidahi (causing burning).

Svadu

Madhura Rasa (sweet taste), Samyaka Ghana (properly concentrated), Abhishyandi (congestive), Vrishya (aphrodisiac), Medakara (increases fat), Kaphakara (increases mucus), Vatashamaka (alleviate Vata), Madhura Vipaka (sweet after assimilation), and Raktapittaprasadana (purify blood and bile).

Svadvamla

Madhura (sweet), Amla Rasa (sour taste) and Kashaya Anurasa (astringent in anurasa), Sandra (concentrated), its properties are explained in Samanya (common) properties of Dadhi.

Amla

Amla Rasa (sour taste) overcomes Madhura Rasa (sweet taste), Deepana (enhances digestive fire), aggravates Pitta-Rakta-Kapha.

Atyamla

Dantaharsha (sensitive for teeth), Romaharsha (causes piloerection), Kanthadahakara (causes burning throat), Deepana (enhances digestive fire) and aggravates Rakta-Vata-Pitta.


  Types of Dadhi According to Origin Top


There are following types of Dadhi according to Rasa[25]

GavyaDadhi (curd prepared with cow milk)

Snigdha (unctuous), Madhura Vipaka, Deepana, Balavardhana (enhances strength), Vatashamaka (alleviate Vata), Pavitra (auspicious), and Ruchiprada (creates taste). It is the best among all other types of Dadhi.

AjaDadhi (curd prepared with goat milk)

Alleviates Kaphapitta, Laghu (light for digestion), Deepana, Vata and Kshaya Roga Nashaka (alleviates Vata and emaciation). It is beneficial in Arsha (hemorrhoids) and Shvasha Roga [dyspnoea]).

Mahisha Dadhi (curd prepared with buffalo milk)

Atisnigdha (very unctuous), Madhura Vipaka, Vrishya, alleviate Vatapitta and aggravates Kapha.

AushtrikaDadhi (Curd prepared with camel milk)

Katu Vipaka (pungent after assimilation), Ishatkshara, Guru (heavy to digest), Bhedya (purgative), Vata Roga (joint disorders), Arsha, Kushtha, Krimi (infestation), and Udara Roga Nashaka (alleviates abdominal disorders).

Avika Dadhi (curd prepared with sheep milk)

Doshala (aggravates all Dosha) and aggravates Kaphavata, Madhura Rasa, and Vipaka, Atyabhishyandi and Arsha.

Vadava Dadhi (curd prepared with mare milk)

Deepana, Achakshushya (harmful for eyes), Vatavardhaka, Ruksha (unctuous), Ushna (hot potency), Kashaya, alleviates Kaphaand Mutra Roga.

NaryaDadhi (curd prepared with human milk)

Snigdha, Madhura Vipaka, Balya, Santarpana (nourishing), Guru, Chakshushya (beneficial for eyes), and alleviates Dosha.

Nagya Dadhi (curd prepared with elephant milk)

Laghupaki (easy to digest), alleviates Kapha, Ushnavirya (hot potency), Agninashaka (reduce digestive fire), Kashayanurasa, and Malavardhaka (stool forming).


  Types of Dadhi According to Concentration Top


There are following types of Dadhi according to consumtion[26]

  1. Ghola: Churned Dadhi with skin and without adding water is Ghola. It has property like Rasala (mango pulp) when mixed with Sharkara (sugar) and it is alleviates Vatapitta
  2. Mathita: Churned Dadhi devoid of skin and without adding water is Mathita. It is aggravates Kaphapitta and Ahladakara (pleasant)
  3. Takra: Churned Dadhi after adding one fourth of water is Takra. It is Kashya, Amla and Madhura Rasa, Madhura Vipaka, Laghu, Ushna Virya, Deepana, Vrishya, Preenana, Vatashamaka. It is Pathya for GrahaniRoga due to its Laghu and Sangrahi properties. It does not aggravate Pitta due to MadhuraVipaka. It is Kaphashamaka due to its Kashaya, Ushna, Vikashi (clarity) and Ruksh (unctuous) properties. The people who consume Takra do not suffer from diseases. It is as beneficial for human as Amrita (nectar) for Devata
  4. Udashvita: Churned Dadhi after adding half of water is Udashvita. It is Kaphavardhaka, Balya and Amanashaka
  5. Chacchika: Churned Dadhi after adding plenty of water and removing whole fat is Chacchika. It is sheeta (cold potency), Laghu, alleviates Pitta and Kapha, Shrama (fatigue) and Trisha (thirst) and aggravates Vata. It is Deepana when consumed with Lanvana (salt)


  • Takra after proper extraction of Ghrita (Half of Ghrita) is Pathya (wholesome) and Laghu
  • Takra after complete extraction of Ghrita is Guru, Vrishya and alleviates Kapha
  • Takra without extraction of Ghrita is Sandra, Guru, Pushti and Kaphakaraka.



  Guna-Karma of Dadhi Variations Top


Mandaka and Jata Dadhi

Mandaka (Improper settled) Dadhi is Tridoshkaraka, Vidahi, Srishtavinmutra and Jata Dadhi (Properly settled) is Vatashamaka.[27],[28]

Galita/Suparishruta Dadhi (hung curd)

Snigdha, Vatashamaka, Kaphavardhaka, Guru, Balya, Brinhana, Pushtikara, Ruchikara, Madhura and Natipittakara.[29],[30]

Dadhi prepared from Pakvadugdha (boiled milk)

Gunavat, Vatapittashamaka, Rochana, Dhatu, Agni and Bala Vardhaka.[31]

Asaradugdha Dadhi (curd prepared from milk without fat)

Sangrahi, Sheeta, Vatala, Laghu, Vishtambhi, Deepana, Rochana and Grahaniroga Nashana.[32]


  Guna-Karma of Various Dadhi Vikriti (Curd Preparations) Top


Dadhisara (Curd Skin): Madhura, Guru, Vatapittashamaka, Kaphavardhaka, Agnishamaka, Shukravardhaka and Vrishya. It is Vatashamaka and Pittakaphavardhaka when it is Amla Rasa.[33],[34]

Dadhimastu/Dhadhimand: Alleviates Trishna, Klama (fatigue) and Kaphavata Laghu, Shrotoshodhaka (cleanses channels), Amla, Kashaya, Madhura, Avrishya (decreases sexual power), Ahladakara, Preenana, Malabhedaka, Sadya Balakara and Rochana.[35]

Takrapindaka (Takra devoid of water): Vishada, Guru, Ruksha, and Grahi (stool concentrating).[36]

Takrakurchika Concentrated and denatured Takra is known as Takrakurchika. It is Grahi, aggravates Vata, Ruksha, and Durjara (difficult to digest). The Manda remaining after formation of Takrakurchika is Laghutara than Dadhimand or Takramanda.[37]

Doshakarma of dadhi variations and combinations are give in [Table 1][38],[39],[40],[41],[42],[43],[44],[45],[46],[47],[48],[49],[50]
Table 1: Doshakarma of dadhivariationsand combinations

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Dahi is known as Dadhi in Sanskrita and has described since Vedic Period. Curd is used as misnomer for Dahi among common people of India. However, curd is a milk product obtained by a process of coagulation, known as curdling. Curdling is the breaking of an emulsion or colloid into large parts of different composition through the physico-chemical processes of flocculation, creaming, and coalescence. This curd may be used as final dairy product e.g. Paneer and Chhaina or may be used to prepare cheese therefore; Indian curd or curd (India) may be exact English translation for Dahi. Yoghurt is like Indian curd but it is produced at industrial level while Dahi may be prepared on domestic basis. Dahi is consumed in Indian Subcontinent and Yoghurt is consumed in Western Subcontinent. The quality of Dahi and Yoghurt depends on the starter culture used, quality of milk and other added things. The word Yoghurt is Turkish word, it means “to knead,” or “to be curdled or coagulated; to thicken.” In Dadhi, culture of Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus diacetilactis, Streptococcus cremoris. Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei, and Streptococcus thermophilusis used and in Yoghurt, culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus tharmophilus, Bifidobacteriumbifidus and Lactobacillus acidophilus.[51],[52]

The taste, flavour and consistency of curd depends on the culture used (concentration and type of bacteria used) and environmental conditions like temperature, season and time to prepare it. This is the reason behind difference in the taste of curd and yoghurt and even curd prepared by different dairies at commercial level or prepared at domestic level. Manda, Swadu, Swadamla, Amla andAtyamla types are based on the principle of preparation. Manda Dadhi gets converted to Swadu, Swadamla, Amla and Atyamla as the setting time of curd increases. There is difference in change in bacterial amount, pH and other physical and chemical properties which are responsible for different Guna-Karma of Manda, Swadu, Swadamla, Amla and Atyamla Dadhi. Ushna Virya and Amla Vipaka of Dadhi are also due to Amla rasa of Dadhi.

Snigdha and Guruproperties of Dadhi may be due to good protein andfat content and its thick consistency. The amount of protein and fat normally remains 3.2%–3.4% and 5%–8% by weight respectively in buffalo milk curd and comparatively less in cow milk curd depending on the quality of milk.[53] The gastric emptying time for curd has been more (60 min) in comparison to milk (35 min) in a trial on human. This experiment supports the Guru property of curd.[54] The Guna-Karma of Ghola, Mathita, Takra, Udashvita and Chacchika are also different based on above principles. Chacchika is the only Sheeta Virya preparation of Dadhi due to presence of abundant amount of water in it, this is the season it is commonly used in summer season in many states of India. Grahi property of Dadhi may be correlated with its probiotic effect as shown in various experimental studies.[55] The beneficial effect of Dadhi in lactose intolerance is also an example of its Grahi property. In a double blind clinical trial on children having lactose intolerance, 25 gms fresh yoghurt was given for 15 days. It leads to improvement in lactose digestion and tolerance.[56] Similar effects have been found in various other clinical trials e.g. Yoghurt may be an effective diet in malnourished children due to lactose intolerance and chronic diarrhoea.[57] Boiling or heating of Dadhi in contraindicated in Ayurveda Texts to keep the probiotic effect of Dadhi undisturbed. Healthy lactobacilli are destroyed due to heating.

Dadhi shows ACE inhibitory activity may be correlated with Vatashamaka effect. In a laboratory study it was found that peptides isolated from digested curd (digestion with pepsin, trypsin and carboxypeptidase-A at optimum temperature and pH) have ACE inhibitory activity, therefore curd may be used as functional food to prevent hypertension.[58] Dadhi has been found as a risk factor for type-2 diabetes mellitus. In a cross-sectional study on 279 type-2 diabetes mellitus patients it was observed that majority of patients were consuming milk and its product including curd. It indicates that irrational use of curd may become a risk factor for type-2 diabetes mellitus.[59] It indicates the Kaphavardhaka property of Dadhi. Pittavardhaka effect of Dadhi may be supported with the study of a case-control study on 178 human volunteer. It was found that excessive intake of Amla Rasa Dravya like curd, butter milk, tomato, lime, tamarind, mango, fermented items etc., may be a risk factor for inflammatory diseases like heartburn, dentine hypersensitivity, joint inflammation, stomatitis, halitosis, and papules.[60]

Guna-Karma of Dadhi as explained above are reason for its indication in Aruchi, Arsha, Atisara, Mutrakricchra, Nashtartava, 4th month of pregnancy, Nidranasha, KarshyaandVatajaHridrogaand Contraindication in Raktapitta, KaphajaVyadhi, Kushtha, Shotha, Shopha, Prameha, Krimi, Mukha Roga, Vasanta, Greeshma and Sharad Ritu.

Consumption of Dadhi is advised with Ghrita, Sharkara and Amalaka to pacify its Pittavardhaka effect, with Mudga Yusha and Madhu to pacify its Kaphavardhaka effect. Consumption of Dadhi is not advised at night due to its Guru and Kaphapitavardhaka properties. Doshika effect of Dadhi in its various combinations given in Siddhamantra is the beauty of Ayurveda that same food can be given in different Prakriti people, seasons and diseases after modifications and combinations as per requirement. In a biphasic survey and clinical study, 79% of total 436 volunteers which were consuming Dadhi at night, symptoms of aggravated Kaphaand Pitta Dosha were found in them. Same volunteers which having the symptoms of aggravated Kaphaand Pitta Dosha were given six grams AmalakiChurna and 6 g of starch powder as placebo for 1 month, a significant reduction in many symptoms of aggravated Kaphaand Pitta Dosha were found. Symptoms reappeared in 4–5 days after discontinuation of Amalaki Curna.[61]

Area for future research

Dadhi and its other products are being used globally without using Ayurvedic tenets. Large survey studies may be conducted to evaluate the beneficial and harmful effect of Dadhi on human health and also adverse health effect of consuming Dadhi without using Ayurvedic tenets. Many clinical trials may be conducted to evaluate the positive effect in various indicated diseases.


  Conclusion Top


Dadhi (curd), which has a range of therapeutic properties, is a staple in Indian cuisine and culture. The difference in their taste, consistency and flavour is due to variation in used starter culture and procedure. Curd prepared from boiled milk has attributes such as relishing, improving Dhatu, digestive power, and stamina, as well as pacifying Vata and Pitta. Action of Dadhi again differs according to its part used and type used. Dadhi is beneficial in list of disorders as Peenasa, Nava Pratishyaya, Sheetajanya Vishamajwara, Aruchi, Arsha, Atisara, Mutrakricchra, Nashtartava, 4th month of pregnancy, Nidranasha, Karshya and Vataja Hridroga. Even though Dadhi has numerous health benefits, it should not be ingested on a regular basis (Nitya asevanadravya) because it affects digestion and causes herpes, blood disorders, skin diseases, anaemia, giddiness, jaundice, oedema, and diabetes. Dadhi should not be consumed at night or after heating or in Vasanta, Greeshma and Sharad Ritu. Dadhi should not be consumed without Ghrita, Sharkara, Mudga Yusha, Madhu, Amalaki or Lavana. Dadhi if used appropriately, it could be used as a diet, medicine, adjuvant, and processing agent in a variety of ailments.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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Priyanka BV, Mallika Kurat Jayavarma, Manjunatha Adiga Note: This article may be assessed from official website of journal i.e., https://www.ijrap.net/, 2018 Vol 9, Issue 6.  Back to cited text no. 61
    



 
 
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  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Need of Study
Materials and Me...
Review of Literature
Guna-Karma of Dadhi
Types of Dadhi A...
Types of Dadhi A...
Guna-Karma of Da...
Guna-Karma of Va...
Discussion
Conclusion
Rule for Consump...
Types of Dadhi A...
References
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