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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 55-61

Shook Dosha (Complication of Recipes use for Penile Enlargement) in Ayurveda: A critical review


1 Department of Kayachikitsa, CBPACS, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Shalya Tantra, CBPACS, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission09-Jan-2021
Date of Decision26-Feb-2021
Date of Acceptance01-Mar-2021
Date of Web Publication25-Aug-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mahesh Kumar
Department of Shalya Tantra, CBPACS, Najafgarh, Khera Dabar, New Delhi - 110 073
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/AYUHOM.AYUHOM_6_21

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  Abstract 


The remedies used for the enlargement of penis are existing since ancient. The different forms of related complications are seen in their application. It has been noticed in Ayurveda texts systematically by the name of Shook Dosha along with their management. These groups of diseases are existing in different forms and more or less nearer to modern disorders of penis. The described subject of Shook Dosha is ignored and still untouched in Ayurveda fraternity. On probing the accessible sources, the systematic work on subject is not perceived. We aimed to review the Shook Dosha (disease or complications produced by remedies used for penile enlargement) in Ayurveda. The Shook Doshas of ancient classics are nothing but simply the diseases, produced by remedies used for enlargement of penis. Shook Dosha is produced by the person who tries to increase the size of penis with improper method (local application) which leads to eighteen types of Shookjanya (local application prepared with poisonous drugs or insects) diseases.On reviewing from sources and Ayurveda classics, the systematic description of Shook Dosha disease and its management is available. Currently, these Shook Doshas can be correlated with complications produced from the remedies used for penile enlargement. The subject has a future prospective to generate scientific data for stalwarts of Ayurveda.

Keywords: Ayurveda, penile enlargement, shook, Shook Dosha, Sushruta


How to cite this article:
Varsakiya JN, Kumar M. Shook Dosha (Complication of Recipes use for Penile Enlargement) in Ayurveda: A critical review. AYUHOM 2020;7:55-61

How to cite this URL:
Varsakiya JN, Kumar M. Shook Dosha (Complication of Recipes use for Penile Enlargement) in Ayurveda: A critical review. AYUHOM [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Sep 20];7:55-61. Available from: http://www.ayuhom.com/text.asp?2020/7/2/55/324638




  Introduction Top


Ayurveda has a rich source of knowledge, having description of various diseases and their treatment modalities. Among these diseases, most are frequently noticed and in practice by clinicians. In the era of modernization, the status of living standard is rising day by day along with advancement in personal and social educations and thoughts regarding sexual educations. Still, the gap existed in awareness and people generally avoid to talk regarding the sexual issues. Due to hesitation, shyness, and social stigma, people are not sharing these types of issues.

The Ayurveda texts such as Sushruta Samhita, Ashtanga Hridaya, Madhava Nidana, and Bhava Prakash have detailed the description of these types of issues; one of them is Shook Dosha. The term Shook Dosha is made up of two words “Shook” and “Dosha.” The Shook means the remedies used for penile elongation and Dosha means related disorders. Hence, the Shook Doshas are the disorders[1] developed due to wrong use of remedies for penile enlargement.

The detailed description of Shook Dosha including definition, etiology, types, clinical features, prognosis, general and specific management are mentioned in Ayurveda classics.[2] The Shook Doshas are of 18 types; among them, 14 are curable and 4 are incurable. The detailed description of these disorders will mention ahead. The features of these diseases are mostly practical and easily recognize on seeing the morphology. Although the subject existed in ancient classics and the disease is seen in society, still on searching, no significant work has been found. This is small effort taken by author to provide the details regarding different types of Shook Dosh and their clinical features, prognosis, its general and specific managements and Pathya-apathya according to classics [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]. People have lots of myths and confusion regarding the size of penis, length of penis, seduction, and sexual performance resulting to these they are try some wrong remedies to in crease the size of penis which causes the disease. It is need of time to explore the topic.
Table 1: Different types of Shook Dosh and their clinical features

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Table 2: Prognosis of Shook Dosha

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Table 3: General measures for management of Shook Dosha

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Table 4: Specific management of Shook Dosha

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Table 5: Pathya-apathya for Shook Dosha

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Aims and objectives

We aimed to review the Shook Dosha (complications of remedies used for penile enlargement) in Ayurveda


  Materials and Methods Top


The search of relevant Ayurveda literature, ancient classics, modern literature, journals, and web search etcetera was done. Then, the collected matters were reviewed and analyzed.


  Discussion Top


Numerous single drugs, drug preparations, environs, and mood elevators are described for the enhancement of male sexual desire. On observing the core ancient Ayurveda classics, it finds that there is no such description of remedies or preparations that can enlarge the penis. The available literature of Vajikarana[9] (aphrodisiac) supports and enhances the orgasm performance. Some people have expectation to increase the length of penis because they are suffering from small penis syndrome[10] or non-satisfactory behavior of the female partner concern to penile length. Furthermore, some men fell inferiority complex with regard to their penile length. They have many rumors as the bigger penis is able to give more joyful orgasm than smaller one.[11] This is not always true. Meanwhile, they adopt some experience-based pharmacological and nonpharmacological unhygienic approaches by local applications. In Ayurveda texts, It is quoted that preparations of Bhallataka[12] (Semecarpus anacardium Roxb.) as local application was used for increase the size of penis. These may cause some diseases that resemble like Shook Doshas of Ayurveda.


  Shook and Shook Dosha Top


The Shook are the remedies used by the people and practitioners for the enlargement of penis. Some of these remedies may have an effective role to enlarge the penis, but when it is used wrongly produce some unwanted effects. These complaints are mentioned as Shook Dosha in Ayurveda ancient texts.


  Etiology Top
[13]

The etiology of Shook Dosha is mentioned in Ayurveda texts, when unaware person tries to increase the size of penis with erroneous local application or Shook (local remedies prepared with poisonous drugs) application. This leads to 18 types of Shookjanya Roga (disease produced by the use of Shook).


  Varieties of Shook Dosha Top


The ancient classics have the description of 18 types of Shook Dosha[14] and their clinical features[3],[15],[16] which are described in [Table 1].


  Sadhyata-Asadhyata (Prognosis) Top
[17]

The prognosis of Shook Dosha is also mentioned in Ayurveda. Among 18 types of Shook Doshas as mentioned in [Table 2], the 14 Shook Doshas are Saadhya (curable) and 4 are Asadhya (incurable).


  Management Top


The Ayurveda texts have detail management of Shook Dosha. These include both general and disease specific, i.e., separately as well as general measures.[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24] The general treatment is common for all Shook Doshas. Action includes pacifying treatment, surgical treatment, parasurgical care, purification treatment, and Pathyapathya (do's and don'ts).[25]


  Conclusion Top


The authors take sincere efforts to collect the available information related to Shook Dosha in ancient Ayurveda classics. The traced facts were collected systematically and then analyzed. In the first observation, these diseases are mostly seen in society and can be easily correlated with modern existing penile disorders. The searched etiology, clinical features, and their treatment modalities can be utilized. It is a need of time to explore such subject at postgraduate dissertation and doctorate level. It is also suggested to make evidence-based clinical correlations of the Shook Dosha of Ayurveda with modern science. The research-based data publications are also solicited to put the subjects on scientific platform. The evaluation of efficacy of mentioned drugs in Shook Dosha for the antibacterial and wound healing properties needs to explore regarding the treatment of genital disorders.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Acharya YT, Acharya RM, editors. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Nibandha Samgraha Commentary, Nidana Sthana. 8th ed., Ch. 14., Ver. 3. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientale; 2005. p. 375.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Acharya YT, Acharya RM, editors, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Nibandha Samgraha Commentary, Chikitsa Sthana. 8th ed., Ch. 21. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientale; 2005. p. 520.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Singhal GD. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Ancient Indian Surgery. 1st ed., Vol. 3., Ch. 6. Delhi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Pratisthan; 2006. p. 103.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Acharya YT, Acharya RM, editors. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Nibandha Samgraha Commentary, Chikitsa Sthana. 8th ed., Ch. 21. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientale; 2005. p. 435.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Acharya YT, Acharya RM, editors. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Nibandha Samgraha Commentary, Chikitsa Sthana. 8th ed., Ch. 21. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientale; 2005. p. 534.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Brahmashankara M, Rupalalaji VS, editors. Purva khanda. In: Bhavaprakasha of Bhavamishra. Part. 2, 1st ed., Ch. 53. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 414-517.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Shashtri RS, Brahmashankara M, editors. Bhaishajya Ratnavali of Govind Das Sen. 1st ed., Ch. 53. 15-18: Varanasi, Chaukhambha Prakashan; 2018. p. 881-3.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Brahmashankara M, Rupalalaji VS, editors. In: Bhavaprakasha of Bhavamishra. Part. 2., 1st ed., Ch. 53. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2012. p. 414-517.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Acharya YT, editor. Chikitsa Sthana. In: Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha. 8th ed., Ch. 2., Ver. 120. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan; 2008. p. 675.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Available from: https://www.webmd.com/sex-relationships/news/20070601/small-penis-syndrome-common. [Last accessed on 2021 Jan 07].  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Mulenga PC, Kazadi AB. Inaccurate information about the size of the penis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: About 21 information sources. Pan Afr Med J 2016;24:291.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Brahmashankara M, Rupalalaji VS, editors. In: Bhavaprakasha of Bhavamishra. Part. 2., Ch. 6., Ver. 1. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrita Bhavana, Ghrita Varga; 2007. p. 227.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Brahmashankara M, Rupalalaji VS, editors. In: Bhavaprakasha of Bhavamishra. Part. 2., Ch. 6., Ver. 759. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrita Bhavana, Ghrita Varga; 2007. p. 227.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Acharya YT, Acharya RM, editors. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Nibandha Samgraha Commentary, Nidana Sthana. 8th ed., Ch. 14., Ver. 3. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientale; 2005. p. 435.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Changani GS, editor. Vasavaraj. 3rd ed., Ch. 14. New Delhi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Pratisisthaan; 2013. p. 135.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Rai RK, editor. Bangsen Samhita (Chikitsa Saar Samgraha); Shookdosha Rogadhikar. Ch. 56., Ver. 1-35. Varanasi: Pracchya Prakashan; 2010. p. 489-92.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Srikanta MK, editor. Ashtang Hridaya of Vagbhata, Sutra Sthana. 1st ed., Ch. 16., Ver. 5. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2009. p. 121.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Shashtri B. editor, Yogaratnakar. 1st ed., Ch. 54., Ver. 1-31. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orentalia; 2009. p. 905-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Rai RK, editor. Bang Sen Samhita of Bangsen. Ch. 56. Varanasi: Choukhambha Sanskit Prakash; 2009. p. 492.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Shashtri S, Upadhyaya YN, editors. Madhava Nidana, Sanskrit Commentary by Sri Vijyarakshita and Sri Kanthadatta, Shukadosh Nidana. Ch. 48. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Prakashana; 2016. p. 175.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Sharma SK, editor. Raskamdhenu of Chudamani Mishra. Ch. 14. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2010. p. 210-56.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Acharya YT, Acharya RM, editors. Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, Nibandha Samgraha Commentary, Chikitsa Sthana. 8th ed., Ch. 21. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientale; 2005. p. 21.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Changani GS, editor. Vasavaraj. 3rd ed., Ch. 14. New Delhi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Pratisisthaan; 2013. p. 233-5.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Shashtri B. editor, Yogaratnakar. 1st, Ch. 54., Ver. 1-31.Varanasi: Choukhambha Orentalia; 2009. p. 905-9.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Shashtri RS, Brahmashankara M, editors. Bhaishajya Ratnavali of Govind Das Sen. 1st ed., Ch. 53., Ver. 20-3. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Prakashan; 2018. p. 883.  Back to cited text no. 25
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Discussion
Shook and...
Varieties of ...
Management
Conclusion
Etiology
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