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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 9-14

Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha and Somraji Taila in Dadru Kushtha (Fungal Dermatophytosis): An Exploratory Review Study


Department of Kayachikitsa, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission09-Feb-2021
Date of Decision13-Apr-2021
Date of Acceptance08-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication09-Jul-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Budha Ram Gwala
Department of Kayachikitsa, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/AYUHOM.AYUHOM_15_21

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  Abstract 


The skin of a person is the index of psychosomatic health. Nowadays various types of fungal diseases are on the rampage, Dadru is one of them. Acharya Charaka described Dadru under Kshudra Kushtha, which is characterized by Udagata Mandala (raised patch) associated with Kandu (itching), Raga (redness), and Pidika (eruptions) and is Pitta Kaphaja predominance skin disease. It has a resemblance to fungal dermatophytosis. It is a common infection of the skin and nails caused by fungus. The prevalence rate of superficial mycotic infection worldwide is 20%–25% (World Health Organization). In India, 5 out of 1000 people, suffer from Tinea infections. The recurrence of this disease is common while treating with modern medicines and has side effects too. To overcome adverse consequences, the need arises for natural herbal remedies. This study aimed to explore and review the probable role of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha and Somraji Taila in the management of Dadru. Ayurveda classics, relevant published research works, and modern literature were used to explore the probable role of selected drugs in the management of Dadru Kushtha. Based on the review, found that both drugs have properties such as Raktaprasadana, Krimighna, Kushthaghna, Kandughna, and Dahaprashamana and beneficial in Rakta Dushti, Twak Vikara and are easily available and cost-effective. Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha and Somraji Taila having Raktashodhaka (blood purifying), Krimighna (antimicrobial), Kandughna (anti-itching) properties, may be useful in the management of Dadru Kushtha (fungal dermatophytosis).

Keywords: Dadru, fungal dermatophytosis, Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha, Somraji Taila


How to cite this article:
Gwala BR, Bhakuni H, Padhar BC. Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha and Somraji Taila in Dadru Kushtha (Fungal Dermatophytosis): An Exploratory Review Study. AYUHOM 2020;7:9-14

How to cite this URL:
Gwala BR, Bhakuni H, Padhar BC. Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha and Somraji Taila in Dadru Kushtha (Fungal Dermatophytosis): An Exploratory Review Study. AYUHOM [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Oct 25];7:9-14. Available from: http://www.ayuhom.com/text.asp?2020/7/1/9/320924




  Introduction Top


Ayurveda literature has described “Tvak Sharira” along with different types of Kushtha. All the skin diseases in Ayurveda have been classified under the broad heading of “Kushtha,” which are further classified as Mahakushtha and Kshudrakushtha.[1] Acharya Charaka described Dadru under Kshudra Kushtha,[2] Acharya Sushruta,[3] and Ashtanga Hridaya[4] described it under Mahakushtha. Kushtha. It is also considered as one of the eight Mahagada[5] and Santarpanajanya Vyadhi.[6]

This condition (Dadru) can be compared with Fungal Dermatophytosis/Ringworm in modern medical science based on similarities of the symptoms.

Ringworm is a common infection of the skin and nails that are caused by fungus. The infection is called “ringworm” because it can cause an itchy, red, and circular rash. Ringworm is also called “tinea” or “fungal dermatophytosis.” The different types of ringworm are usually named for the location of the infection on the body.[7]

Superficial fungal infections are the most common fungal infections. According to the World Health Organization, the prevalence rate of superficial mycotic infection worldwide is 20%–25%.[8] In India, 5 of 1,000 people, suffer from tinea infections.[9] It is more prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries like India where the heat and humidity are high for most of the year.[10]

Adverse consequences with contemporary treatment for fungal dermatophytosis and recurrences demanded for solution from natural herbal remedies. Considering these facts and the limitations of contemporary treatment, two Ayurveda formulations were selected for review study, which are supposed to be safe and effective in conditions similar to Dadru Kushtha.

Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha mentioned in Bhava Prakasha has been selected because of its efficient mode of action in Rakta Dushti (Blood impurities), Twak Vikara (Skin related disorders), easy availability, and cost-effectiveness.[11] Kwatha (Decoction) has Agnideepaka (Digestion and Metabolism stimulant), Raktashodaka (Blood purifier), Samsrana (purgative), Pitta Kaphahara, and Kushthaghna (Alleviating skin diseases) properties.[12] Somraji Taila has been selected because of its Kushthaghna, Kaphavatahara, and Rasayana (Rejuvenation) effect on Twak (Skin), and its ingredients have the properties to restore the natural functions of Bhrajaka Pitta.[13]

Nidana Panchaka of Dadru Kushtha

Detail about Nidana Panchaka of Dadru Kushtha is depicted in [Table 1].
Table 1: Nidana Panchaka of Dadru Kustha

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Samprapthi Ghataka

Detail about Samprapthi Ghataka of Dadru Kushtha is depicted in [Table 2].[17] Acharya Charaka described Dadru in the fourth layer of Tvaka.[18] Acharya Sushruta described Kushtha in the fourth and fifth layers of Tvaka.[19]
Table 2: Samprapthi Ghataka of Dadru Kustha

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Aim and objectives

To review and explore the role of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha and Somraji Taila in the management of Dadru.


  Materials and Methods Top


The present work is based on a review of classical information, relevant published research works, and modern literature. An attempt has been made to explore the probable role and mode of action of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha and Somraji Taila in the management of Dadru through reviewing available literature.


  Drug Review Top


Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha

Properties and Action

The detail about ingredients of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha is mentioned in [Table 3].[20] Properties and action of contents of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha are depicted in [Table 4].[21][22]
Ingredients of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha

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Table 4: Properties and action of ingredients of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha

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Somraji Taila

Properties and Action

The detail about ingredients of Somraji Taila is mentioned in [Table 5].[23] Properties and action of contents of Somraji Taila are depicted in [Table 6].[24][25]
Table 5: Ingredients of Somraji Taila

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Table 6: Properties and action of ingredients of Somraji Taila

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  Discussion Top


The maximum ingredients in both formulations contain Katu, Tikta, and Kashaya Rasa. Katu Rasa has properties such as Deepana and actions such as Kandughna, Vranaprasadana, Krimighna, and it is also said to dilate the Srotas.[26] Tikta Rasa has the property of Vishaghna, Krimighna, Dahaprashamana, Kandughna, and Kushthaghna.[27] Kashaya Rasa has the property of Varnaropana, Kledashoshaka, and Kapha-Rakta-Pitta Prashamana.[28] Laghu and Ruksha Guna are seen in most of the ingredients. Laghu Guna possesses Lekhana and Ropana properties.[29] Ruksha Guna has the property of Shoshana and Rukshana.[30] Most of the ingredients are of Ushna Veerya, which has Vatakaphashamaka and Ashupaka property through which it works quickly at minute channels.[31] Katu Vipaka helps in Shodhana of Srotas (Removal of obstruction in microchannels).

Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha

Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha is described in Bhava Prakasha[32] (Rogadhikar-Kushtha), Sharangdhar Samhita[33] (Rogadhikar-Kushtha, Vatarakta), Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakara[34] (Rogadhikar-Kushtha, Vatarakta), and Yogaratnakara[35] (Rogadhikar-Vatarakta). Laghu Manjishthadi Kwatha is indicated in all types of Kushtha, Vatarakta, Pama, and Kapalika by all the authors but indicated in Dadru by Bhava Prakasha and Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakara.[36]

Discussion on mode of action of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha in Dadru Kushtha or fungal Dermatophytes

Jatharagni Mandhya (Altered digestion) and Rasa Dhatvagnimandya (Poor metabolism at cellular level) produce Ama (Advanced glycation end products and toxic substances) which mix with blood and vitiate blood and skin. Poor digestion and metabolism at cellular level also interfere with skin moisture and pH. Altered skin moisture and pH make skin more vulnerable for fungal infection. The contents of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha such as Vibhitaki and Amalaki having Deepana, Pachana activities (Improving digestion and metabolism) result in correction of functions of Agni, and thus prevents the production of Ama (Advanced glycation end products and toxic substances) and further vitiation of blood, skin moisture, and pH. The contents such as Manjishta, Katuki, Haridra, and Nimba having Rakta Shodhaka property removes the Ama (Advanced glycation end products and toxic substances) from blood and helps to maintain moisture and pH of the skin.[37]

Recent researches have also proved that the contents of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha such as Majistha, Amalaki, and Haritaki possess antiproliferative, antifungal, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities.[38][39][40]

In vitro studies of water extracts of Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis were found to be effective for dermatophytes.[41] Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellerica) having antimicrobial activity,[42] bioactivity-guided fractionation of its fruit extract demonstrates antifungal activity in vitro,[43] Vacha has proven antimicrobial activity.[44] Therapeutic use of Nimba is also scientifically established for skin diseases or epidermal problems ranging from dandruff, acne, and ringworm infection.[45] Clinical studies with the dried neem leaf extract indicated its effectiveness to cure ringworm.[46] Anthraquinones of the Rubia cordifolia exhibit antimicrobial, antifungal, and antioxidant.[47] Ethyl acetate, hexane, chloroform, and methanol crude extracts of T. chebula dried fruits exert different degrees of antifungal activity against five Candidal strains, three Aspergillus species, and three dermatophytic fungal strains.[48] The study proves keratolytic, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha without producing any side effects.[49]

Somraji taila

Somaraji Tail is indicated for local application in various skin disorders in Ayurveda classics.[50][52]

Dadru or Dermatophytosis is a Kapha Dosha dominant Tridoshaja skin disorder. Local application of Somraji Taila reduces symptoms of Dadru or Dermatophytosis due to its Katu (Pungent), Tikta (Bitter) test, Ushna Veerya Laghu, Ruksha Guna, and Katu Vipaka.[53] Some contents of Somraji Taila also have Rakta Shodhaka (Blood purifying) property help to get rid of the growth of fungus on the skin.[54]

Various researches on the contents of Somraji Taila have proved its antifungal, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. Petroleum ether extract of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed, tested against Fusarium, evaluated by agar well diffusion assay was found to have antifungal action.[55] The other contents of Somraji Taila such as Haridra, Sarshapa, and Amalatasa have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activities antifungal activity.[56][57][58] External application of Chakramarda seed powder is found to be effective in reducing color of patches, size of patches, and itching with low recurrence rate.[59][60] Cassia fistula rich in tannin and phenolic compounds have been shown to possess antimicrobial activities against a number of microorganisms.[61] Somraji oil having the property of deep penetration helps to remove inflammatory substances and promote the regeneration of new tissue.[62] The local application of Somraji oil acts quicker due to the physiological effect of heat on the skin.


  Conclusion Top


Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha and Somraji Taila having Rakta Shodhaka (Blood purifying), Krimighna (Antimicrobial and antifungal), Kushthaghna (Beneficial in skin diseases), Kandughna (Reduces itching), Dahaprashamana (Reduces burning sensation) properties as well as antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative actions, expected to exert significant impact on the pathogenesis of Dadru Kushtha or fungal dermatophytosis. Further clinical trial to assess the clinical efficacy of internal use of Laghumanjishthadi Kwatha with local application of Somraji Taila for effective management of Dadru Kushtha or fungal dermatophytosis is recommended.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Drug Review
Discussion
Conclusion
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